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  • 国外钢管生产技术的进步
  • 本站编辑:杭州派跃威流体设备有限公司发布日期:2019-08-29 16:54 浏览次数:

钢管生产技术的进步一方面在用户需求的推动下不断进行了新产品开发,从生产企业的高效低成本化出发促进了新技术开发。

On the one hand, the progress of steel pipe production technology has been pushed forward by the user's demand, which promotes the development of new technology from the point of view of high efficiency and low cost of production enterprises.

1.无缝钢管的生产技术

1. Production Technology of Seamless Steel Pipe

对日本无缝钢管生产厂来说,这10年间乃是摆脱慢性亏损的阶段,在激烈的市场竞争下出现了外商合资和两厂合并等重大变革。近年来由于油气开发转向深海和CO2、H2S浓度高的恶劣环境,促进了13Cr等高合金钢管的开发。

For Japan's seamless steel pipe production plant, this decade is a stage to get rid of chronic losses. Under the fierce market competition, there have been major changes such as foreign joint ventures and merger of the two factories. In recent years, oil and gas development has shifted to the harsh environment with high concentration of CO2 and H2S in deep sea, which has promoted the development of 13Cr high alloy steel pipes.

(1)穿孔。有两项成果:一是交叉穿孔机的穿孔技术,二是扩管穿孔技术。前者为适应以13Cr为中心的高合金钢管的生产而开发成功,有利于抑制穿孔时伴生的剪断形变而为多数厂所采用。并配套开发出高温强度高的芯棒,今后考虑开发含Ti、Zn、Mo合金的超长寿命芯。后者亦开发很久,因用曼内斯曼穿孔机穿孔时管端质量不佳,致扩管率(穿孔外径/管坯外径)仅达1.2~1.3,而交叉穿孔则可达1.4~2.0,使壁厚/外径比由7%变薄至3%,对下道工序的轧管十分有利,使轧管机架由原来的7台减为5台,对简化轧管工序和节约设备投资均有利。

(1) Perforation. There are two achievements: one is the piercing technology of cross piercing machine, the other is the expanding piercing technology. The former has been successfully developed to adapt to the production of 13Cr-centered high alloy steel pipes, which is conducive to restraining the shear deformation associated with perforation and has been adopted by most factories. The core rod with high strength at high temperature has been developed, and the development of ultra-long life core containing Ti, Zn and Mo alloys will be considered in the future. The latter has also been developed for a long time. Because of the poor quality of the pipe end when perforated by Mannesmann piercing mill, the expansion rate (perforated outer diameter/blank outer diameter) is only 1.2-1.3, while the cross-perforation is 1.4-2.0, which makes the wall thickness/outer diameter ratio from 7% to 3%. It is very advantageous to the rolling pipe in the next process, and reduces the pipe mill stand from 7 to 5. Simplifying pipe rolling process and saving equipment investment are beneficial.

(2)连续轧管。由于回程连续轧管技术可产出表面性能好、壁厚精度高的超大径无缝钢管,逐步代替了芯棒轧管机。加上穿孔机的工作负荷加大,为连续轧管减少道次创造了条件,更加速了节约投资的5~4机架的连续轧管机的推广。加之机架配置亦由X式改为VH式,进一步实现了紧凑化和节约设备投资。

(2) Continuous rolling of pipes. Because of the excellent surface properties and high wall thickness accuracy of super-large diameter seamless steel tube produced by backhaul continuous rolling technology, the mandrel mill is gradually replaced. With the increase of the workload of the piercing mill, the conditions for reducing the pass number of continuous rolling pipe are created, and the promotion of the 5-4 stand continuous rolling pipe mill which saves investment is accelerated. In addition, the rack configuration has been changed from X type to VH type, which further realizes compactness and saves equipment investment.

作为提高产品形状精度的技术,除不断提高计算机的高精度控制外,并出现了高精度的三辊轧机。为下工序的拉伸减径轧制时减少管端切头损失,又开发成功通过轴压下和计算机控制的薄壁管端连续轧管技术。
    (3)拉伸减径轧制使过去长期存在的两个问题均基本得到解决。首先是长度方向管端壁偏厚问题,由于连续轧管薄壁化和速度控制已基本解决;其次是外径压下时产生的内部张力问题,通过研究轧辊形状和张力的影响,采取了15°配置的斜辊机和4辊减径机的解决方案。
    (4)今后技术开发的主要方向是生产高合金管、降低设备费用、提高壁厚和外径的精度及其及搞好节能。
    2.焊管的生产技术
    (1)电焊管。近10年来的主要技术进步如下:(a)生产范围扩大。2003年建成可生产管线用高强度、高变形焊管的14″电焊管机组,为生产厚壁管的26″电焊管机组的改造亦已完成;(b)提高焊接可靠性技术方面,除对已开发的焊接控制系统高精度化外,还开发成功气体保护焊技术;(c)在提效降本方面的重大突破是开发成功柔性成型轧机(简称FF轧机),已用于中小径管的生产。它通过对轧辊和管坯接触点的依次最佳控制而实现了柔性成型,使换辊和调整时间大幅缩短,同时由加工产生的形变亦得到了控制;(d)激光焊接在合金管和厚壁管的生产上得到了应用;(e)复合成型管在汽车部件上的应用和电焊管生产上应用了高频加热减径并进行在线热处理技术。
    (2)UOE钢管。随着主用途管线的变化不断开发成功提高效率和保证质量的技术和设备。近年由于天然气开发转向边远地区和深海,为节约管线投资而实现高压化和小型化,从而促进了UOE钢管的高强度化和极厚壁化。为保超高强度化,在开发成功相关的炼钢技术和中厚板生产应用TMCP新技术的基础上,UOE管亦开发成功配套的成型技术,使X80~X100、X120等产品陆续量产。在厚壁化方面,为防止在深海敷设弯曲时出现折损,针对确保焊缝处的韧性进行了有关材料和焊接技术的开发。
    (3)炉焊管和螺旋焊管。10年来变化不大。